tainty about their children's survival; and their realization that a sma will make it easier to provide education and social mobility for the i
3. Educational costs to the parents lead to smaller desired fan-Even when the costs of teacher salaries and the capital and equipme of education are paid by the state, children in school are a con: expense to their parents. Their material needs are greater and they able to contribute to family income. Hence parents perceive their inte better served by having fewer children.
4. Economic and social development resulting from educatio toward a reduction in fertility. As we have pointed out, an increas quality and skills of the labor force, together with other individual ai characteristics related to education, are probably the most impor ments in economic and social development. At the same time, thei dence that a certain level, or rate, and character of development are n conditions for a marked decline in fertility under the present circur of less developed countries. Although both these propositions rest la statistical grounds and are difficult to quantify or state in any fashion, the empirical relationships seem clear. We may say with some tion that an increase in the quantity, an improvement in the qualit; raising of the average level of education in most developing countrie promote economic development and thus a slowing down of po growth.
Time Lags in Educational and Economic Development
Both high rates of population growth and the poverty that is syno with underdevelopment severely impede a rapid expansion of educat: time lags for interaction between population and economic change an< tional improvement are long. A reduction in fertility would signifies prove educational prospects only after about 10 years; there is also about 10 years in the effects of education on economic developmenl fertility. Neither the developed nor the less developed countries can a relax their efforts to bring about a reduction in fertility by all aa means or to take advantage of every opportunity for capital investm institutional change that offers a possibility of speeding up the devel process.
CONSEQUENCES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVIC
Public health technology applied on a mass scale in the developin tries has reduced death rates dramatically. Yet the level of persona
*See the following chapters in Vol. II of this study: John Casscl, "Healt quences of Population Density and Crowding"; Leslie Corsa. "Conseauences o